Flexibility Philosophy

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26. Babault N, Kouassi BY, Desbrosses K. Acute effects of 15 min static or contract-relax stretching modalities on plantar flexors neuromuscular properties. J Sci Med Sport. Mar 2010;13(2): 247–252 [PubMed]

27. Manoel ME, Harris-Love MO, Danoff JV, Miller TA. Acute effects of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle power in women. J Strength Cond Res. Sep 2008;22(5):1528–1534 [PubMed]

28. Fowles JR, Sale DG, MacDougall JD. Reduced strength after passive stretch of the human plantarflexors. J Appl Physiol. Sep 2000;89(3):1179–1188 [PubMed]

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30. Behm DG, Kibele A. Effects of differing intensities of static stretching on jump performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. Nov 2007;101(5):587–594 [PubMed]

31. Hough PA, Ross EZ, Howatson G. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. J Strength Cond Res. Mar 2009;23(2):507–512 [PubMed]

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34. Fletcher IM, Anness R. The acute effects of combined static and dynamic stretch protocols on fifty-meter sprint performance in track-and-field athletes. J Strength Cond Res. Aug 2007;21(3):784–787 [PubMed]

35. Kistler BM, Walsh MS, Horn TS, Cox RH. The acute effects of static stretching on the sprint performance of collegiate men in the 60- and 100-m dash after a dynamic warm-up. J Strength Cond Res. Sep 2010;24(9):2280–2284 [PubMed]

36. Wilson JM, Hornbuckle LM, Kim JS, et al. Effects of static stretching on energy cost and running endurance performance. J Strength Cond Res. Sep 2010;24(9):2274–2279 [PubMed]

37. Robbins JW, Scheuermann BW. Varying amounts of acute static stretching and its effect on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. May 2008;22(3):781–786 [PubMed]

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39. Sayers AL, Farley RS, Fuller DK, Jubenville CB, Caputo JL. The effect of static stretching on phases of sprint performance in elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. Sep 2008;22(5):1416–1421 [PubMed]

40. Behm D, Button DC, Butt JC. Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Can J Appl Physiol. 2001;26(3):262–272 [PubMed]

41. Kay AD, Blazevich AJ. Concentric muscle contractions before static stretching minimize, but do not remove, stretch-induced force deficits. J Appl Physiol. Mar 2010;108(3):637–645 [PubMed]

42. Feland JB, Marin HN. Effect of submaximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. Br J Sports Med. Aug 2004;38(4):E18. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

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44. Cornelius WL. Stretch evoked EMG activity by isometric coontraction and submaximal concentric contraction. Athletic Training. 1983;18:106–109

45. Condon SM, Hutton RS. Soleus muscle electromyographic activity and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion during four stretching procedures. Phys Ther. Jan 1987;67(1):24–30 [PubMed]

46. Mitchell UH, Myrer JW, Hopkins JT, Hunter I, Feland JB, Hilton SC. Neurophysiological reflex mechanisms' lack of contribution to the success of PNF stretches. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18:343–357 [PubMed]

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48. Moore MA, Hutton RS. Electromyographic investigation of muscle stretching techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12(5):322–329 [PubMed]

49. Osternig LR, Robertson R, Troxel R, Hansen P. Muscle activation during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques. American journal of physical medicine. Oct 1987;66(5):298–307 [PubMed]

50. Osternig LR, Robertson RN, Troxel RK, Hansen P. Differential responses to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Feb 1990;22(1):106–111 [PubMed]

51. Mahieu NN, Cools A, De Wilde B, Boon M, Witvrouw E. Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. Aug 2009;19(4):553–560 [PubMed]

52. Mitchell UH, Myrer JW, Hopkins JT, Hunter I, Feland JB, Hilton SC. Acute stretch perception alteration contributes to the success of the PNF “contract-relax” stretch. J Sport Rehabil. May 2007;16(2):85–92 [PubMed]

53. Moore MA, Kukulka CG. Depression of Hoffmann reflexes following voluntary contraction and implications for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy. Phys Ther. Apr 1991;71(4):321–329; discussion 329–333 [PubMed]

54. de Weijer VC, Gorniak GC, Shamus E. The effect of static stretch and warm-up exercise on hamstring length over the course of 24 hours. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Dec 2003;33(12):727–733 [PubMed]

55. Young W, Clothier P, Otago L, Bruce L, Liddell D. Acute effects of static stretching on hip flexor and quadriceps flexibility, range of motion and foot speed in kicking a football. J Sci Med Sport. Mar 2004;7(1):23–31 [PubMed]

56. Curry BS, Chengkalath D, Crouch GJ, Romance M, Manns PJ. Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women. J Strength Cond Res. Sep 2009;23(6):1811–1819 [PubMed]

57. Beedle BB, Mann CL. A comparison of two warm-ups on joint range of motion. J Strength Cond Res. Aug 2007;21(3):776–779 [PubMed]

58. Wallmann HW, Mercer JA, Landers MR. Surface electromyographic assessment of the effect of dynamic activity and dynamic activity with static stretching of the gastrocnemius on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. May 2008;22(3):787–793 [PubMed]

59. McMillian DJ, Moore JH, Hatler BS, Taylor DC. Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: the effect on power and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res. Aug 2006;20(3):492–499 [PubMed]

60. Dalrymple KJ, Davis SE, Dwyer GB, Moir GL. Effect of static and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance in collegiate women volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. Jan 2010;24(1):149–155 [PubMed]

61. Torres EM, Kraemer WJ, Vingren JL, et al. Effects of stretching on upper-body muscular performance. J Strength Cond Res. Jul 2008;22(4):1279–1285 [PubMed]

62. Yamaguchi T, Ishii K. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. J Strength Cond Res. Aug 2005;19(3):677–683 [PubMed]

63. Pearce AJ, Kidgell DJ, Zois J, Carlson JS. Effects of secondary warm up following stretching. Eur J Appl Physiol. Jan 2009;105(2):175–183 [PubMed]

64. Herman SL, Smith DT. Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-term performance benefits. J Strength Cond Res. Jul 2008;22(4):1286–1297 [PubMed]

65. Fletcher IM, Jones B. The effect of different warm-up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res. Nov 2004;18(4):885–888 [PubMed]

66. Behm DG, Bambury A, Cahill F, Power K. Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time, and movement time. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Aug 2004;36(8):1397–1402 [PubMed]

67. Ferber R, Gravelle DC, Osternig LR. Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch techniques on trained and untrained older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity. 2002;10:132–142

68. Weng MC, Lee CL, Chen CH, et al. Effects of different stretching techniques on the outcomes of isokinetic exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. Jun 2009;25(6):306–315 [PubMed]

69. Worrell TW, Smith TL, Winegardner J. Effect of hamstring stretching on hamstring muscle performance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Sep 1994;20(3):154–159 [PubMed]

70. Wallin D, Ekblom B, Grahn R, Nordenborg T. Improvement of muscle flexibility. A comparison between two techniques. Am J Sports Med. Jul-Aug 1985;13(4):263–268 [PubMed]

71. Tanigawa MC. Comparison of the hold-relax procedure and passive mobilization on increasing muscle length. Phys Ther. Jul 1972;52(7):725–735 [PubMed]

72. Sady SP, Wortman M, Blanke D. Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Jun 1982;63(6):261–263 [PubMed]

73. Cornelius WL, Ebrahim K, Watson J, Hill DW. The effects of cold application and modified PNF stretching techniques on hip joint flexibility in college males. Res Q Exerc Sport. Sep 1992;63(3): 311–314 [PubMed]

74. Funk DC, Swank AM, Mikla BM, Fagan TA, Farr BK. Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: a comparison of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching. J Strength Cond Res. Aug 2003;17(3):489–492 [PubMed]

75. Fasen JM, O'Connor AM, Schwartz SL, et al. A randomized controlled trial of hamstring stretching: comparison of four techniques. J Strength Cond Res. Mar 2009;23(2):660–667 [PubMed]

76. Chow TP, Ng GY. Active, passive and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching are comparable in improving the knee flexion range in people with total knee replacement: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. Oct 2010;24(10):911–918 [PubMed]

77. Yuktasir B, Kaya F. Investigation into the long-term effects of static and PNF stretching exercises on range of motion and jump performance. J Bodyw Mov Ther. Jan 2009;13(1):11–21 [PubMed]

78. Sullivan MK, Dejulia JJ, Worrell TW. Effect of pelvic position and stretching method on hamstring muscle flexibility. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Dec 1992;24(12):1383–1389 [PubMed]

79. Feland JB, Myrer JW, Merrill RM. Acute changes in hamstring flexibility: PNF versus static stretch in senior athletes. Physical Therapy in Sport. 2001;2(4):186–193

80. Ford P, McChesney J. Duration of maintained hamstring ROM following termination of three stretching protocols. J Sport Rehabil. Feb 2007;16(1):18–27 [PubMed]

81. Godges JJ, Macrae H, Longdon C, Tinberg C, Macrae PG. The effects of two stretching procedures on hip range of motion and gait economy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1989;10(9):350–357 [PubMed]

82. Caplan N, Rogers R, Parr MK, Hayes PR. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics. J Strength Cond Res. Jul 2009;23(4):1175–1180 [PubMed]

83. Marek SM, Cramer JT, Fincher AL, et al. Acute Effects of Static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Muscle Strength and Power Output. J Athl Train. Jun 2005;40(2):94–103 [PMC free article] [PubMed]

84. Shadmehr A, Hadian MR, Naiemi SS, Jalaie S. Hamstring flexibility in young women following passive stretch and muscle energy technique. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2009;22(3):143–148 [PubMed]

85. Feland JB, Myrer JW, Schulthies SS, Fellingham GW, Measom GW. The effect of duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group for increasing range of motion in people aged 65 years or older. Phys Ther. May 2001;81(5):1110–1117 [PubMed]

86. Rider RA, Daly J. Effects of flexibility training on enhancing spinal mobility in older women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. Jun 1991;31(2):213–217 [PubMed]

87. Rodacki AL, Souza RM, Ugrinowitsch C, Cristopoliski F, Fowler NE. Transient effects of stretching exercises on gait parameters of elderly women. Man Ther. Apr 2009;14(2):167–172 [PubMed]

88. Small K, Mc Naughton L, Matthews M. A systematic review into the efficacy of static stretching as part of a warm-up for the prevention of exercise-related injury. Res Sports Med. 2008;16(3):213–231 [PubMed]

89. Webright WG, Randolph BJ, Perrin DH. Comparison of nonballistic active knee extension in neural slump position and static stretch techniques on hamstring flexibility. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Jul 1997;26(1): 7–13 [PubMed]

90. Davis DS, Ashby PE, McCale KL, McQuain JA, Wine JM. The effectiveness of 3 stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility using consistent stretching parameters. J Strength Cond Res. Feb 2005;19(1): 27–32 [PubMed]

91. Depino GM, Webright WG, Arnold BL. Duration of maintained hamstring flexibility after cessation of an acute static stretching protocol. J Athl Train. Jan 2000;35(1):56–59 [PMC free article] [PubMed]

92. Bandy WD, Irion JM, Briggler M. The effect of static stretch and dynamic range of motion training on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Apr 1998;27(4):295–300 [PubMed]

93. Ferreira GN, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Guimaraes CQ. Gains in flexibility related to measures of muscular performance: impact of flexibility on muscular performance. Clin J Sport Med. Jul 2007;17(4): 276–281 [PubMed]

94. Aquino CF, Fonseca ST, Goncalves GG, Silva PL, Ocarino JM, Mancini MC. Stretching versus strength training in lengthened position in subjects with tight hamstring muscles: a randomized controlled trial. Man Ther. Feb 2010;15(1):26–31 [PubMed]

95. O'Sullivan K, Murray E, Sainsbury D. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:37. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

96. Malliaropoulos N, Papalexandris S, Papalada A, Papacostas E. The role of stretching in rehabilitation of hamstring injuries: 80 athletes follow-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc. May 2004;36(5):756–759 [PubMed]

97. Reid DA, McNair PJ. Passive force, angle, and stiffness changes after stretching of hamstring muscles. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Nov 2004;36(11):1944–1948 [PubMed]

98. Katalinic OM, Harvey LA, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Lannin NA, Schurr K. Stretch for the treatment and prevention of contractures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;9:CD007455. [PubMed]

99. Hakkinen A, Kautiainen H, Hannonen P, Ylinen J. Strength training and stretching versus stretching only in the treatment of patients with chronic neck pain: a randomized one-year follow-up study. Clin Rehabil. Jul 2008;22(7):592–600 [PubMed]

100. Ylinen J, Kautiainen H, Wiren K, Hakkinen A. Stretching exercises vs manual therapy in treatment of chronic neck pain: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial. J Rehabil Med. Mar 2007;39(2):126–132 [PubMed]

101. Lewit K, Simons DG. Myofascial pain: relief by post-isometric relaxation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Aug 1984;65(8):452–456 [PubMed]